Soviet Montage 1925-1930
Russian Revolution- 1917, Political, economic, social change, the social change was that the working class was fighting back against the upper class
Marxist influenced socialism
Moscow Film school opened in 1919, it was the first time a specialised school opened in film, it was opened to get across their political genders
Lev Kuleshov opened the school started to look into intolerance, because what he was doing, he cut apart films and looked at the meaning of them. Meaning through the assembly or montage of shots.
He said you can change the meaning of one single shots but how you place the other shots around it.
Down with bourgeois, long live life as it is. Dziga Vertov
5 stages of montage
Metric montage- Edits based on length of the shot
Rhythmic montage- Edits based on length of shot and rhythm of action in the shot
Tonal montage- Based on length, action and lighting and shape within the frame
Over-tonal montage- Includes all of these above
The shot by no means an element of montage
When looking into this type of movement, he started from the start of the movement, when Ross spoke about it, he gave us facts he spoke about them, he explained them with theorists, and then he gave an example of their work.
Italian Nero Realism and modernism- ‘Facts as they are’
Highley contested term
Chantal Akerman ‘ When you try and show reality in cinema most of the time it looks totally false , but when you show whats going on in peoples minds that very cinematic’
Cesare Zavanrrini- Realism is about embracing the contemporary.
Post world war two
European Art Cinema Developed in opposition to the classical hollywood’s cinema need to create Illusion of reality.
European montage doesn’t follow the classic way Hollywood edited their films, instead of creating scenes that flowed well, to the point were you don’t realise that they’ve changed scenes.
Rossellini ‘ There are many kinds of neorealism, everyone has its own. Mine was moral position, an effort to understand myself inside the phenomenon.
- Cinema is a way of expression and communication in the true sense of the world
- Topical scripts inspired by events, but also by historical issues from the people themselves
- A sense of details as a means of Authentication
- A sense of the masses and the ability to surprise and manipulate them in front of the camera.
As little editing as possible, its also about directors who put their faith in reality. It also focuses on depth of field, and ultimate expression of the illusion of reality in cinema. Also its about the idea of shooting on location, this moves towards Italian Modernism.
Influential Films include: Germany Year Zero (Roberto Rossllini)
French New wave- 1959- 1968
Most of the people who created this type of cinema all went to the Cinemarheque Francasie film school.
Cahiers Du Cinema was a film magazine that featured many French new wave
Example- the 400 blows